Category: Medical

Regenerative Medicine, the Coming Revolution of Cancer Treatment

Regenerative Medicine, the Coming Revolution of Cancer Treatment

In the relentless pursuit of cancer treatment, one field is poised to revolutionize our approach: regenerative medicine. This isn’t just another incremental advance; it is a paradigm shift in how we understand and treat cancer. This article will guide you through the intricacies of regenerative medicine, its transformative research, and why it could be the cornerstone for cancer treatment in both developed and developing nations. For medical companies eyeing international expansion, particularly in China, this is an innovation you cannot afford to ignore.

What is Regenerative Medicine?

Regenerative medicine is a multidisciplinary field that aims to repair, replace, or regenerate damaged tissues and organs. It’s not a new concept; the idea has been around for decades. However, recent advancements in technology and research have propelled it into the limelight.

The Science Behind It

At the core of regenerative medicine is the manipulation of cells and tissues to treat diseases. This involves a range of scientific disciplines, including biology, chemistry, and engineering. Researchers are learning how to harness the body’s innate ability to heal itself, amplifying or directing these processes through scientific intervention.

Types of Regenerative Medicine

The field is broadly categorized into four types:

Tissue Engineering: Creating functional tissues in labs that can be implanted into patients.

Cellular Therapies: Using cells, often stem cells, to repair damaged tissues directly.

Medical Devices and Artificial Organs: Devices that can temporarily or permanently take over the function of an organ.

Combinations of the Above: Innovative treatments that combine elements of tissue engineering, cellular therapies, and medical devices.

The Ongoing Research and Methods

The field of regenerative medicine is bustling with research, much of which is focused on cancer treatment. From academic labs to pharmaceutical giants, the race is on to develop therapies that are both effective and safe. Recent articles highlight the significant challenges in treating cancer and how regenerative medicine is participating in the development of novel cancer treatments.

Cutting-Edge Methods

Several methods are at the forefront of this research:

Stem Cell Therapy: Utilizing stem cells to replace damaged cells. This is particularly promising for blood-related cancers like leukemia. Researchers are currently exploring stem cells that underlie various types of cancers.

Gene Editing: Techniques like CRISPR are being used to modify genes, potentially correcting mutations that lead to cancer.

3D Bioprinting: The creation of cellular structures using 3D printing technology, which can be used for testing drug responses or even creating replacement tissues.

Case Studies and Clinical Trials

Numerous clinical trials are underway to test the efficacy of these methods. For instance, CAR-T cell therapy, a type of stem cell therapy, has shown remarkable results in treating certain types of lymphoma.

The Revolution in Cancer Treatment

The efficacy of regenerative medicine therapies is often higher than traditional methods, with fewer side effects. Patients experience a more personalized treatment, tailored to their specific needs. For example, stem cells have the potential to treat numerous genetic and degenerative disorders, including cancers.

Importance in Developing Countries

The potential of regenerative medicine extends beyond the borders of developed nations. Developing countries, often burdened with limited healthcare infrastructure, can benefit immensely from these therapies. They offer a cost-effective and scalable solution, making quality cancer treatment accessible to a broader population.

Regulatory Landscape: EU vs China

When it comes to regulations, the European Union and China have different approaches. The EU has stringent regulations to ensure the safety and efficacy of these therapies. China, on the other hand, has been more aggressive in adopting regenerative medicine, often fast-tracking research and clinical trials. For instance, more than 450 cell therapy clinical trials are currently ongoing in China. This has made the country a burgeoning hub for regenerative medicine research.

Pioneering the Future of Cancer Treatment

Regenerative medicine is not just a scientific curiosity; it’s a transformative approach that is redefining the landscape of cancer treatment. Its potential is universal, offering hope to patients in both developed and developing countries. For medical companies looking to expand internationally, particularly in China, this is an area ripe for investment and innovation.

For European innovators in therapeutics, medical technology and diagnostics targeting the Chinese market, VVR Medical offers comprehensive market entry services. With over 15 years of hands-on experience in human healthcare in China, VVR Medical provides a unique, all-encompassing, personalized approach to accelerate your China market entry. From strategic diagnosis to implementation, VVR Medical assists you in clearing regulatory hurdles, identifying necessary resources, and preparing for efficient commercialization, setting you on the path to success in this burgeoning market.

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The potential of biomarkers for early diagnosis

The potential of biomarkers for early diagnosis

Imagine a world where debilitating diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s, or heart ailments can be identified before they manifest symptoms, allowing for treatments that are not just less invasive but also significantly more effective. The technology that holds the promise to turn this vision into reality is already among us – it’s called biomarkers. By diving into this article, you’re taking the first step to understanding how biomarkers are revolutionizing the landscape of healthcare, especially in the realm of early diagnosis.

Unveiling the Power of Biomarkers

This section aims to unfold the transformative potential of biomarkers and their use in early diagnosis by explaining their unique diagnostic characteristics.

What are Biomarkers?

Biomarkers, or biological markers, are measurable indicators of some biological state or condition. They can be molecules, cells or cell fragments, genes, or characteristics observed through medical imaging. Biomarkers exist in various categories, primarily diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive. Diagnostic biomarkers identify whether a disease is present, prognostic biomarkers forecast the disease’s progression, and predictive biomarkers anticipate how a disease will respond to treatment.

The Revolutionary Potential for Early Diagnosis

Early diagnosis is an undisputed game-changer in healthcare. When diseases are identified in their initial stages, treatment outcomes are often significantly better, and healthcare costs can be reduced. Recent research has propelled biomarkers into the spotlight as a tool for early diagnosis. For instance, liquid biopsy, a non-invasive test, can now detect circulating tumor DNA in blood samples, providing a revolutionary way to identify early-stage cancer.

Studies have shown the increasing reliability of biomarkers in early diagnosis. For instances, in cardiovascular diseases, a high level of troponin – a type of protein – serves as an early warning sign of a heart attack; in cancer, the detection of circulating progastrin in the bloodstream has demonstrated its relevance in early diagnosis of various types of solid tumors. The utilization of such biomarkers has been instrumental in reducing mortality rates from heart attacks.

Methodologies and Challenges

In the quest to personalize medicine and revolutionize diagnostic procedures, biomarker discovery and successful clinical exploitation stands at the forefront, offering a glimpse into a future where treatment is tailored to the individual’s unique biological signature. The very advancements that promise a new era of medicine also beckon a host of ethical, financial, and technical conundrums.

Research Methodologies

Various methodologies are employed in biomarker discovery and validation. Some of the cutting-edge techniques include genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics.

Genomics: The entire genetic blueprint of an organism is the focus of this domain, with an exploration into how genes interact and function.

Proteomics: This area examines the structure and function of proteins, which are the products of gene expression.

Metabolomics: In this area, the emphasis is on the examination of small molecules, termed as metabolites, which originate from the actions of both genes and proteins.

High-throughput technologies like next-generation sequencing have revolutionized these fields, enabling the identification of new biomarkers at a faster rate. Multi-omics technologies encompass genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. These technologies act as efficient and effective tools for disease diagnosis, management, monitoring, treatment, and the discovery of novel biomarkers.

Challenges and Influential Factors

While the promise of biomarkers is immense, there are challenges that influence their widespread adoption. Ethical considerations, such as the privacy and security of genetic data, are a constant concern. Additionally, the cost factor cannot be ignored. Advanced tests can be expensive, which raises questions about accessibility, especially in developing countries.

The Global Landscape – From EU Regulations to Implications for Developing Countries

As we navigate the evolving landscape of global health diagnostics, biomarker regulation stands as a pillar of quality and safety. This section provides a comprehensive overview of the stringent regulatory frameworks of the European Union and their far-reaching implications for developing nations.

EU Regulations

The European Union has stringent regulations for the approval of biomarkers. All biomarkers must undergo rigorous clinical trials, most often conducted on the European soil, to establish their reliability and efficacy. The EU’s In Vitro Diagnostic Regulation (IVDR) serves as a comprehensive framework governing the approval and monitoring of in vitro diagnostic medical devices, including biomarkers.

Implications for Developing Countries

The stringent nature of EU regulations could serve as a benchmark for developing countries eager to adopt biomarker technology. However, challenges like inadequate healthcare infrastructure, low awareness, and limited financial resources make the situation complex. Despite these obstacles, the potential benefits of early diagnosis through biomarkers could be transformative for healthcare systems in these regions.

Conclusion: Toward a New Frontier in Early Diagnosis

Biomarkers have emerged as a potent tool in the world of healthcare, offering promising avenues for early diagnosis that can lead to more effective treatments and better patient outcomes. As we have seen, the European Union has set rigorous standards for the adoption of this technology, which could serve as a template for other nations, including those with developing economies. Yet, it is worth noting that countries like China are rapidly advancing in this sector (both technology-wise and cost-wise, with affordable full-genome sequencing devices adapted to single-patient diagnosis becoming a reality as we speak), with the potential to contribute to global healthcare by setting new benchmarks in the utilization of biomarkers for early diagnosis.

For European medical technology and diagnostic innovators looking to expand into the Chinese market, VVR Medical offers unparalleled expertise and assistance. Leveraging a deep understanding of both European and Chinese regulatory landscapes, VVR Medical provides services that range from strategic diagnosis to commercial development and supply chain management. By partnering with VVR Medical, businesses can navigate the complexities of the Chinese healthcare ecosystem, thereby securing and strengthening their foothold in one of the world’s most lucrative and fast-growing markets.

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Advancing Frontiers: The Rise of Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques

Advancing Frontiers: The Rise of Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques

In the realm of medical science, the evolution from open surgical procedures to minimally invasive surgical techniques marks a significant stride towards better patient care and enhanced operational efficiency. This shift not only epitomizes the advancement of medical technology but also mirrors the relentless pursuit of reducing surgical invasiveness and the associated risks. The focus of this article is to unravel the various minimally invasive surgical techniques currently in use, the ongoing research aimed at honing these methods, and the global implications of such medical innovations.

Unveiling Modern Techniques

The scope of minimally invasive surgical techniques is continuously expanding, thanks to relentless innovations in medical technology. Here’s a glance at some of these modern techniques.


Known as keyhole surgery, laparoscopy is widely used in gastrointestinal, gynecological, and urological surgeries. Recent advancements include the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotic assistance, enhancing surgical precision, but also Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS), Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES), and telementoring, which have shown promise in bettering surgical outcomes and patient recovery times. The global market for laparoscopy devices is projected to grow at a CAGR of 6.5% from 2020 to 2030, reflecting the escalating adoption of this technique.


Utilizing an endoscope, this technique allows visualization of internal body cavities. Surgical polarimetric endoscopy, a recent advancement, has been employed for the detection of laryngeal cancer. The year 2023 saw the launch of Olympus’s EVIS X1™ endoscopy system, marking a substantial stride in endoscopic technology​. The convergence of artificial intelligence and robotics with endoscopy is a trend to watch, as these technologies are driving further advancements in this domain.

Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery, once a futuristic idea, has become a reality with its application spanning across various surgical domains, including cardiothoracic, colorectal, urological (in particular with EDAP TMS’s FocalOne® robotic HIFU solution), general, gynecology, and head-and-neck surgery, driven by ongoing technological advances. The surgical robotics market, now exceeding $3 billion, is poised for significant growth, with an increased demand for Robotic-Assisted Surgery (RAS) across the globe.

Laser Surgery

Laser surgery employs beams of light to cut, remove, or cauterize tissue, and is hailed for its precision and minimal damage to surrounding tissues. Recent advancements in refractive surgery, such as the rise of Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) and the introduction of technically competitive laser systems, mark a paradigm shift in surgical precision, efficacy, and patient outcomes​. Improvements in aesthetic laser devices, including longer dye lives and increased wavelength capacities, contribute to the enhanced precision and accuracy of laser treatment​.

These techniques, each with its unique advancements, contribute to better patient care, faster recovery times, and reduced healthcare costs, showcasing significant strides in the surgical domain.

The Spectrum of Benefits

Minimally invasive surgical techniques hold a plethora of benefits that significantly enhance both patient care and operational efficiency. Here are the key advantages underscored by recent data:

Reduced Recovery Time

Smaller incisions expedite healing, enabling patients to resume normal activities sooner, substantiated by reduced postoperative complications and shorter hospital stays.

Lesser Pain and Scarring

Patients experience less post-operative pain and minimal scarring, contributing to better cosmetic results and an improved recovery experience​.

Lower Risk of Infection

The minimized exposure of internal body structures to potential contaminants lowers the risk of post-surgical infections, aligning with improved postoperative pain control and shortened postoperative hospitalization​.


Quicker recovery times, lower infection risks, and shorter hospital stays contribute to lower healthcare costs, aligning with the medico-economic benefits associated with MIS​.

Trailblazing Research and Emerging Techniques

The voyage of minimally invasive surgical techniques into new horizons is steered by groundbreaking research. Here’s a glimpse into the contemporary research and emerging techniques that are pushing the boundaries.

Robotic Assistance

The symbiosis of robotics with minimally invasive surgery is escalating surgical precision and control to unprecedented levels. The advent of sophisticated robotic systems is enabling surgeons to perform complex procedures with enhanced accuracy and minimal invasiveness. Recent innovations like the reconfigured robotic arm design, faster docking to reduce operative time, and fluorescence-detection to identify structures and lesions are notable advancements in this domain. Moreover, robotic-assisted surgery has become a popular trend offering prospective benefits to patients like shorter hospital stays, earlier recovery, and less pain, along with operational benefits to surgeons.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

AI is the torchbearer of predictive analytics and real-time decision support during surgical procedures. It is fostering a paradigm of data-driven surgery, where AI algorithms aid in enhancing surgical precision and optimizing patient outcomes. While not aimed at replacing surgeons but rather at making most use of their experience and knowledge, AI has the potential to revolutionize surgery, particularly in technical skill assessment and integration into surgical robots, which paves the way for improved preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance.

3D Visualization and Augmented Reality (AR)

3D visualization and AR are revolutionizing the way surgeons interact with medical imaging data. Technologies like the XR90 augmented reality-based surgical visualization and navigation platform combine CT imaging with live ultrasound to perform minimally invasive procedures with enhanced precision. AR technology superimposes artificial targets onto a live view of patient anatomy, offering a more intuitive understanding of anatomical structures and enhancing surgical planning and execution.

Telemedicine and Remote Surgery

The combination of telemedicine with minimally invasive surgical techniques is greatly enhancing the application range for remote surgery and consultations. Telementoring, a form of remote teaching in surgery that includes more and more 3D/AR visualization modes, enriches the training options for surgical trainees, while telemedicine addresses some barriers to surgical care, especially in low- and middle-income countries, by providing remote healthcare services.

Advanced Imaging Technologies

Cutting-edge imaging technologies are the linchpin of successful minimally invasive procedures, offering clearer and more detailed visualizations crucial for surgical success. The evolution of medical imaging systems has been rapid, with the integration of artificial intelligence, cloud-based solutions, and mobile technology revolutionizing medical imaging.

Bridging Surgical Frontiers

The significance of minimally invasive surgical techniques extends beyond the operating rooms of developed nations to developing countries where healthcare resources are often limited. Moreover, the global reverberations of advancements in minimally invasive surgery are palpable, with countries like China embracing and investing in these techniques to foster a robust healthcare ecosystem.

VVR medical, a conduit for European innovators in medical technology and diagnostics, facilitates a smooth entry and establishment in the Chinese market, accelerating China market entry through strategic diagnosis, qualification, and efficient commercialization of products and services. This symbiosis of surgical advancements and market access strategies elucidates a promising trajectory towards a global surgical landscape that is not only efficient and effective but also inclusive and progressive, steering the global healthcare community towards a horizon where surgical care is more accessible, less invasive, and profoundly impactful.

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Unveiling New Horizons: AI in Medical Diagnosis for Global Expansion

Unveiling New Horizons: AI in Medical Diagnosis for Global Expansion

In the dynamic realm of healthcare, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a revolutionary force, particularly in the domain of medical diagnosis. By combining the power of sophisticated algorithms with clinical insights, AI facilitates quicker and more accurate diagnostic processes, to the benefit of the patient, the practitioner and the whole healthcare chain alike. For companies with a visionary outlook, this presents a ripe opportunity to expand their horizons beyond domestic borders and thrive in the international arena.


The essence of this article lies in elucidating the transformative potential of AI in medical diagnostics, and how it can be a catalyst for companies aspiring for global expansion. As healthcare demands continue to escalate worldwide, leveraging AI can empower businesses to meet these challenges head-on, while adhering to the diverse and stringent regulatory landscapes of different regions – some of them often unfamiliar with the subject. Thus, delving into AI’s diagnostic prowess is not merely an exploration of technological advancement, but a voyage towards unlocking new avenues of growth and making impactful strides on the global healthcare stage.

Navigating the Transformation: Harnessing AI for Diagnostic Excellence

The journey of AI in reshaping the medical diagnostic landscape is nothing short of remarkable. Here’s a glance at the current impacted domains and the advantages AI beholds for businesses eyeing international expansion in the medical diagnosis field:

  • Early Detection and Diagnosis:

  • Improved Accuracy and Efficiency:

    • By reducing the scope of human error and solving multiple repeatability & consistency issues, AI enhances the accuracy of diagnoses.
    • It also expedites the diagnostic process, smoothening patient flow and ensuring timely intervention and better patient outcomes, as evidenced by a case where AI could diagnose heart conditions in just 15 seconds compared to the human average of 30 minutes to an hour​.
  • Potential Advantages for International Business Expansion:

    • Meeting Global Healthcare Standards: With AI, companies can elevate their diagnostic services to meet or even surpass international healthcare standards, a critical aspect for gaining a foothold in foreign markets in need for cutting-edge innovation.
    • Overcoming Geographical and Resource Constraints: Provided solutions are designed and implemented in conformity with relevant data safety and patient privacy regulations and standards, AI can help transcend geographical barriers and resource limitations by enabling remote diagnostics and optimizing resource utilization, making international expansion more feasible and sustainable.

The integration of AI in medical diagnostics not only sets the stage for enhanced healthcare delivery but also opens up a world of opportunities for companies to extend their services globally. By aligning with the global healthcare ethos of early and accurate diagnosis, companies can carve a niche for themselves in the international market, thereby achieving a significant competitive edge.

Regulatory and Ethical Landscape: Preparing for International Markets

Navigating through the diverse regulatory and ethical landscapes is a prerequisite for a successful foray into international markets with AI-driven medical diagnostics. Here are key considerations:

  • Understanding Diverse Regulatory Frameworks:

    • Familiarization with the regulatory requisites in target markets such as the US FDA’s framework or the EU’s Artificial Intelligence Act is imperative to ensure compliance and smooth market entry​. This is particularly true for expansion towards second-tier countries and territories where US or EU clearance is often a prerequisite to successful local registration, as is the case g. in China.
    • Engage with local regulatory bodies and seek local regulatory expert guidance to align your AI diagnostic solutions with the prevailing legal frameworks, particularly in terms of data safety, patient privacy, and cross-border data transfer and exploitation.
  • Ethical Considerations in AI-Driven Diagnostics:

    • Beyond strict regulatory and legal compliance, addressing ethical dilemmas such as privacy, bias, and transparency is vital to building trust with local stakeholders and patients.
    • Establish clear, documented ethical guidelines and ensure they are communicated across all levels of the organization.
  • Building Trust and Credibility:

    • Establishing a reputation for ethical practices and regulatory adherence can foster trust among patients, healthcare providers, and local authorities.
    • Develop a robust system for addressing grievances and ensuring accountability in AI-driven diagnostic processes.

Strategic Alliances: Fostering Global Partnerships

Forming strategic alliances is a cornerstone for successfully navigating the global landscape of AI in medical diagnostics. These partnerships can provide invaluable local insights and foster a conducive environment for growth and innovation. Here are some crucial steps and considerations:

  • Partnering with Local Healthcare Providers and Authorities:

    • Forge partnerships with local healthcare providers and authorities to better understand the local healthcare ecosystems, regulatory landscapes, and patient needs. Targeted adaptations in order to meet these needs can significantly enhance the local acceptance and impact of your AI-driven diagnostic solutions.
  • Engaging in Collaborative Research and Development:

    • Engage in collaborative research and development with local institutions, through ad hoc, publishable clinical research that allows practitioners to familiarize with your solutions, will help you innovate and refine AI diagnostic solutions in alignment with local healthcare challenges and global standards.
  • Case Examples of Successful International Expansions:

Conclusion: Seizing the Global Opportunity: Your Next Steps

The panorama of AI in medical diagnostics offers a fertile ground for companies aspiring to extend their outreach globally. By harnessing the transformative potential of AI, understanding diverse regulatory frameworks, contributing to the education of local regulatory bodies on your solutions‘ breakthroughs and advantages, forming strategic alliances, and learning from successful case examples, companies can navigate the complexities of international markets.


VVR Medical stands as a bridge for European medical technology and diagnostic innovators eyeing the expansive Chinese market, which uniquely combines a massive need for new diagnosis paradigms in order to cope with its widely-stretched healthcare challenges, a strong appeal for cutting-edge innovation, and a flexible regulator that is willing to interact with you at all stages of your development.

VVR Medical support

With a deep understanding of regulatory and market dynamics, as well as multiple successful cases, VVR Medical assists in navigating through the entry and establishment phases, ensuring a smoother transition into this promising market. The journey may pose challenges, yet the rewards of China expansion in this burgeoning field are promising. Now is the opportune time to strategize and embark on a venture that not only elevates healthcare standards worldwide but also propels your business to new heights on the international stage.

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New Tech Applied in China’s Healthcare Industry

On 24 August, Irénée Robin, director and co-founder of VVR Medical, took part in the “New Tech Applied In China’s Healthcare Industry” round table organised by La French Tech Shanghai.

This article looks back at Irénée’s speech, during which he shared advice for medical technology companies wishing to succeed in the Chinese market. Passionate about the latest advances in the field, Irénée also spoke about recent innovations that have caught his attention, arousing fascination and hope, such as the use of virtual reality software to replace drugs in the treatment of central nervous system pathologies (such as pain or certain phobias)!

Irénée Robin began by sharing his expertise on the regulatory registration process for highly innovative products. He explained how to interact with the Chinese regulator (NMPA) when it comes to submitting marketing authorisation applications for technologies that are still unknown to them. In such cases, the procedures are long and complex, and the application for authorisation is not always validated, which is why it is advisable to enlist the help of an expert to maximise the chances of success.

Irénée Robin then insisted on the need to carry out an evaluation of his technology before initiating the registration procedures with a view to setting up a distribution network on the Chinese market. According to our expert, it is essential to test your product or service against a series of questions to determine whether it meets the needs of the Chinese medical sector and whether it is suitable for integration into the local market. Indeed, before taking the plunge, it is crucial to ensure that your product or service offers an improvement in solving a specific problem:

  • For patients (improved standard of care, diagnosis, prophylaxis, etc.)
  • For practitioners (facilitating or accelerating diagnosis, outpatient vs. inpatient care, clinical decision support, etc.)
  • For hospitals (lower costs, easier patient flow, synergies between departments, better use of local dispensaries or “points of care”, etc.)
  • To solve a major public health problem for the Chinese government (increase in home care, medico-economic impact, etc.).

In some cases, technology can provide solutions or improvements at different levels. For example, an innovation that makes it possible to diagnose certain illnesses at an early stage is a step forward for patients, as it means they can be treated less severely. It can also reduce the cost and duration of treatment for hospitals. Lastly, it can reduce the prevalence of certain diseases in the population, ultimately enabling the medical system to make savings on a national scale.

According to Irénée Robin, it is essential to be able to qualify and even measure precisely the impact that the product or service will have in solving the problem, and to identify who will benefit from this improvement. What’s more, it’s not just a question of introducing technology into healthcare to be considered a medical innovation. In fact, it is by combining technology, clinical skills and an understanding of care pathways (which are often complex and impossible to change in depth) that products and services acquire added value and revolutionise the medical sector. Medical innovation must meet the real expectations of patients and practitioners. Irénée Robin concluded by pointing out that the greatest successes in health tech are achieved by relying on multidisciplinary teams at every stage of research and development.

To sum up, before entering the Chinese market, you need to :

  1. Identify and qualify the precise improvement that the product or service will bring to the Chinese healthcare sector;
  2. Take account of the entire care chain and rely on an interdisciplinary team right from the development phase;
  3. Supporting innovation with knowledge of how the medical world works and the issues specific to the sector in China.

In the second part of his speech, Irénée Robin took a closer look at Franco-Chinese collaboration in the health tech sector. In his view, the best strategy for success in the Chinese market would be to retain all the research and development of product innovation in France, and to draw on the strengths of a Chinese partner to scale up and market innovations developed outside China throughout China. “The best alliances are those that play to the strengths of the partners, not those that aim to correct their weaknesses”.

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